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Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANets) are spontaneous wireless networks of mobile nodes without any fixed infrastructure. The routing problem focuses major attention since it suffers currently from a lack of performances and scalability. Besides, a self-organization structures the network and introduces a hierarchy. The authors propose here a new framework of routing protocols to benefit from a virtual topology of self-organization. The backbone is useful to introduce a first level of hierarchy and to limit the reactive overhead. Besides, clusters introduce a second level of hierarchy and create stable routes. VSR combines the assets of reactive and proactive flat routing with the self-organization hierarchy and allows local route repair.
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