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Wireless Sensor Networks are characterized by the cooperative engagement of mobile nodes that constitute networks possessing continuously-changing infrastructures, the bereavement of centralized network managers, access points, fixed base stations and a backbone network for controlling the network management functions. While comprehensive studies have been carried out in the past several years for many sensor applications, they cannot be applied to the network with extremely low and sporadic connectivity, dubbed the Fault-Tolerant Wireless Sensor Network (FT-WSN). Without end-to-end connections due to sparse network density and sensor node stimulus, routing in FT-WSN becomes localized and ties closely to medium access control, which naturally calls for merging Layer 3 and Layer 2 protocols in order to reduce overhead and improve network efficiency.
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