What Makes A Test Score? The Respective Contributions Of Pupils, Schools, And Peers In Achievement In English Primary Education

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Executive Summary

This study develops an analytical framework for evaluating the respective contributions of pupils, peers, and school quality in affecting educational achievement. The authors implement this framework using rich data from England that matches pupils to their primary schools. The dataset records all English pupils and their test scores in Key Stage 1 (age 7) and Key Stage 2 (age 11) national examinations. The quality of the data source, coupled with the econometric techniques, allows assessing the respective importance of different educational inputs. One can distinguish school effects that affect all pupils irrespective of their year and grade of study, from school-grade-year effects.

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