Date Added: Aug 2011
Data traffic is expected to grow faster than capacity in future wireless networks. Therefore it will become unavoidable to deal with congestion. Bottlenecks are located on the wireless links because back-haul and Internet are over-provisioned. Traffic routed towards the User Terminal (UT) in down-link direction keeps coming in through a big pipe until it reaches the Base Station (BS). The following wireless links can only carry a limited data rate due to congestion. In a multi-hop situation buffers before the bottlenecks ramp up and become unstable, leading to packet loss.