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The success of modular design and architecture has been observed in many fields. For examples, in the world of computer systems, the Von Neumann architecture set forth the fundamentals of modern computers. Equally important in computer networks is the Open System Interconnect (OSI) architecture, where the hierarchy of layers abstracts network functionalities and hides implementation complexities. In the multiple layers of OSI, the physical layer defines the actual waveform being transmitted in communication medium and the conversion of digital information bits (modulation/demodulation).
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