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Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that existing terrestrial wireless sensor network solutions have limited applicability for wireless underground sensor networks. Reliable communication between an underground and a surface node was only achievable over a range of 7 m, even with the underground node placed at a relatively shallow depth of 6 cm. While the results are encouraging in that they demonstrate communication with a mote buried at shallow depths is possible, even at the high frequency of 2.4 GHz used by the MicaZ, they clearly show that challenges exist in the underground environment that are not addressed by terrestrial WSN solutions.
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