Beacon-Less Location Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks for Non-Flat Terrains
In this paper, the authors develop a new beacon-less localization scheme for non-flat surfaces for wireless sensor networks. Simulations are conducted for a Gaussian distribution of nodes about the deployment points on the non-flat terrain, as well as a node deployment corresponding to the terrain surface characteristics. The localization errors for the proposed method, for a non-flat terrain with the Gaussian distribution of nodes and the terrain conforming distribution, are comparable to those in the case of the location discovery scheme in for the flat surface. The localization errors, when the distribution of nodes corresponds to the terrain are slightly larger than when the nodes are normally distributed. The results are applicable to localization in real life wireless sensor networks deployed over non-flat terrains.