Format-Controlling Encryption Using Datatype-Preserving Encryption
DataType-Preserving Encryption (DTP) enables encryption of values within a certain character set into ciphertext restricted to the same set, while still keeping data length. This is in contrast to conventional block cipher modes which produce binary data, i.e each encrypted character may have an arbitrary value, possibly outside the original character set, often accompanied with a length expansion caused by padding. Format-Controlling Encryption (FCE) is an extension to DTP, for which data length still is kept, but the output character range is allowed to be larger, though not covering the range of all possible values (i e binary data). With FCE it's possible to handle certain DTP limitations, like limited key rotation and integrity support.