Source: George Mason University
Most crowd simulation research either focuses on navigating characters through an environment while avoiding collisions or on simulating very large crowds. The authors' work focuses on creating populations that inhabit a space as opposed to passing through it. Characters exhibit behaviors that are typical for their setting. They term these populations functional crowds. A key element of this paper is ensuring that the simulations are easy to create and modify. They use roles and groups to help specify behaviors, they use a parameterized representation to add the semantics of actions and objects, and they implemented four types of actions (i.e. scheduled, reactive, opportunistic, and aleatoric) to ensure rich, emergent behaviors.