Turbo King: Framework for Large-Scale Internet Delay Measurements
Distance estimation and topological proximity in the Internet have recently emerged as important problems for many distributed applications. Besides deploying tracers and using virtual coordinates, distance is often estimated using end-to-end methods such as King that rely on the existing DNS infrastructure. However, the question of accuracy in such end-to-end estimation and its ability to produce a large-scale map of Internet delays has never been examined. The authors undertake this task below and show that King suffers from non-negligible error when DNS zones employ geographically diverse authoritative servers or utilize forwarders, both of which are very common in the existing Internet.