Understanding TCP Over TCP: Effects of TCP Tunneling on End-to-End Throughput and Latency
Source: Osaka University
TCP tunnel is a technology that aggregates and transfers packets sent between end hosts as a single TCP connection. By using a TCP tunnel, the fairness among aggregated flows can be improved and several protocols can be transparently transmitted through a firewall. Currently, many applications such as SSH, VTun, and HTun use a TCP tunnel. However, since most applications running on end hosts generally use TCP, two TCP congestion controls (i.e., end-to-end TCP and tunnel TCP) operate simultaneously and interfere each other. Under certain conditions, it has been known that using a TCP tunnel severely degrades the end-to-end TCP performance. Namely, it has known that using a TCP tunnel drastically degrades the end-to-end TCP throughput for some time, which is called TCP meltdown problem.