So you’ve mapped out your MCSE exam path, and it includes Microsoft’s exam 70-222, Migrating from Windows NT 4.0 to Microsoft Windows 2000. But what should you study? While a variety of testing aides are available—books, CDs, brain dumps, and sample tests—it’s a good idea to have an overview of what you need to know before you begin gathering references. This article lists the study areas Microsoft recommends on the 70-222 Web page from their Training and Certification site, and it offers more detailed information about each of these areas.

How is 70-222 different from other tests?
The format of exam 70-222 differs quite a bit from previous tests. The test is half case-study-based and half multiple choice questions. Many questions require you to “build a tree and reorder” when answering them, which means when given the scenario, you must choose actions or items from one window, move them to another window, and arrange them in the correct order to complete the task. So knowing the exact order of migration actions is critical to passing the test.

For an example of a “build a tree and reorder” question, you can download a Case Study-Based Test Demo from Microsoft. Before you tackle the test material, remember that Microsoft expects the average tester to have had at least one year of experience with a network operating system (NOS), including installation, maintenance, troubleshooting, remote access, routing issues and problems, and connectivity issues.

Developing the migration strategy
Your first study task should be to learn how to develop an NT to Windows 2000 migration strategy. According to the Microsoft Training and Certification site, the three types of migration strategies are:

  1. Domain upgrade
  2. Domain upgrade and restructure
  3. Domain restructure

Knowing how to choose the correct migration strategy is essential when performing an actual migration and/or passing the 70-222 exam. Here are a few suggestions I’ll pass along to help you know how to develop a migration strategy:

  • Make sure you understand network infrastructure.
  • Prepare for potential problems and know which programs are available to resolve these problems. One person said that knowing the Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT) helped him pass the exam more than anything else. The ADMT is a free supplement available from Microsoft. You can find out more about ADMT by visiting the Microsoft Support site.
  • I can’t emphasize enough the importance of planning. Many of the questions on the 70-222 exam are designed to verify how well you plan for events that occur during a migration process.
  • Know your Windows NT 4.0 models: single domains, single master domains, multiple master domains, and complete trust domains. Also know how each relates to a Windows 2000 domain upgrade.
  • Study about groups in NT 4.0 and Windows 2000.
  • Understand structures, organizational units (OUs), and their features, such as the delegation of administration rights.

Microsoft’s site lists the information you should also know for developing a migration strategy as:

  • The current hardware configuration.
  • Security—including rights and privileges, group memberships, certificate services, SID (Security Identification), and post-migration security risks.
  • The need to develop a plan for seamless user access during and after the migration procedure.
  • The current network infrastructure.
  • Software compatibility with Windows 2000—this includes third-party apps, such as line of business (LOB) applications, Web servers, BackOffice, etc.
  • The current domain design.
  • The organization’s technical needs.
  • Existing network services—this includes remote access functionality, network protocols used, DHCP, LAN Manager Replication, WINS, Windows 2000 DNS Server, NetBIOS, and the existing DNS service.

The best preparation for developing a migration strategy is studying for Microsoft Official Curriculum (MOC) 2010: Designing a Microsoft Windows 2000 Migration Strategy. Many people who’ve tested for 70-222 said that the best test preparation they had was having studied MOC 2010.

Preparing for the migration upgrade
Next, learn what to do prior to a domain upgrade. When preparing for a migration upgrade, you must plan for potential disasters. Know when the migration will disrupt the least number of users and ensure that your backup plans are adequate and comprehensive. Understand in which order the computers will be backed up and be familiar with all the tools you’ll use in the actual migration. People who’ve taken the exam recommend practicing in a lab prior to taking the test.

Microsoft’s Training and Certification site also recommends you study the following:

  • Developing a strategy to prepare the upgrade-target environment
  • Choosing which computers will be upgraded and in what order
  • Preparing the source environment for the upgrade process—this process includes creating a pristine environment and installing the Windows 2000 DNS service or configure the existing DNS implementation (whichever is appropriate)
  • Developing and implementing a recovery plan that takes into account the implications for Security Account Manger (SAM), WINS, DHCP, Windows 2000 DNS server, and the existing DNS service

Planning and deploying a domain upgrade
The first type of migration strategy you’ll need to understand is the domain upgrade. This strategy calls for upgrading the operating system straight from NT 4.0 to 2000. Microsoft’s site suggests you understand the following:

  • Study how to plan and review your upgrade strategy.
  • Understand how to plan an upgrade path that takes into account the current operating system version and any service packs that have been applied.
  • Know that you should first upgrade the PDCs, which must be upgraded before the BDCs. Implement lbridge.cmd to ensure that the NT 4.0 BDCs are up to date with the most current logon scripts and system policy files stored on the Win2K domain controller. Then, upgrade the BDCs. You must know which of the BDCs will be the last one to be upgraded, configure it as the source server for replication of logon scripts and system policies, and then configure it so that other BDCs will use it as the source. Upgrade the application servers, DNS servers, and RRAS servers. In an environment with one PDC, you would need to create a BDC and then take it offline to have in case of an emergency.
  • Study how to configure the necessary network protocols, DHCP, LAN Manager replication, WINS, NetBIOS, Windows 2000 DNS Server service, and the existing DNS service.
  • Know about implementing group policies.
  • Understand how to implement any file replication bridges.
  • Study how to convert all domains to native mode, and know what native mode and mixed mode are, and understand the differences in NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 domain modes.
  • Know about performing a test deployment of the domain upgrade.
  • Understand how to implement disaster recovery plans if needed, including how to restore the pre-migration environment and/or roll back the implementation to a specific point.
  • Study how to perform any post-migration tasks, including backing up domains and checking the functions of the network service(s).

Planning and deploying an intraforest domain restructure and an interforest domain restructure
The domain restructure strategy is a main focus of the 70-222 exam. There are two types of migrations that can be done: the intraforest domain restructure, which consolidates multiple Windows 2000 domains into a single forest, and an interforest restructure, which consolidates Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 domains into one or more Windows 2000 domains in a different forest.

The tools you use to perform these restructuring jobs are Active Directory Management Tool (ADMT), CloneTree, ClonePrincipal, MoveTree, and NETDOM. ADMT is a GUI wizard program that can be used for both interforest and intraforest restructures. CloneTree is a visual basic, script-based program that performs several interforest migration procedures. ClonePrincipal consists of DSUtils. It is a COM object supporting three methods: AddSidHistory, CopyDownlevelUserProperties, and Connect. MoveTree is a command-line tool program that helps with intraforest migration.

NETDOM is also command-line-based and is used to view and manage trust relationships in NT 4.0 and in Windows 2000. NETDOM can join a Windows 2000 computer to a Windows NT or Windows 2000 domain with the options to specify the OU for the computer account, to generate a random computer password for the initial join, and to manage computer accounts for domain member clients and member servers. You also use NETDOM to establish and manipulate one- or two-way trust relationships between domains.

You must be familiar with these tools and how they work in all settings to perform well on this section of the exam. On its Training and Certification site, Microsoft recommends the following areas of study:

  • Development of a domain restructure strategy
  • Creating or configuring Windows 2000 target domain or domains—this involves creating the needed trusts, creating the OUs, implementing the site design, implementing all group policies, configuring remote access functionality, networking protocols, DHCP, LAN Manager Replication, WINS, NetBIOS, Windows 2000 DNS Server Service, and an existing DNS service
  • The appropriate usage of migration tools including: ADMT, ClonePrincipal, MoveTree, NETDOM, and the Windows 2000 Resource Kit tools
  • Migrating global groups and user accounts
  • Migrating local groups and computer accounts
  • Performing test deployments of both intraforest and interforest migrations
  • Implementing disaster recovery plans, which include restoring the pre-migration environment and rolling back the implementation to a specific point
  • Performing post-migration tasks, such as redefining DACLS, backing up source domains, decommissioning source domains, redeploying domain controllers, verifying the success of object migrations, verifying the functionality of network services, and removing SID history from objects

There are almost always difficulties with domain restructuring. Although good planning will help you avoid many problems, even the best-laid plans can’t guarantee a trouble-free migration. The 70-222 exam tests your knowledge of potential problems and their solutions. The exam also tests your knowledge of backing up domains and networking services, so know all the tools you would need and have a plan for a complete backup. The exam contains questions on taking a partially migrated environment back to its original pre-migration status. Other troubleshooting issues that the Microsoft Training and Certification site suggests you be familiar with include:

  • Troubleshooting a failed domain upgrade, which includes resolving hardware failures, resolving third-party issues, resolving issues associated with rights necessary for upgrade, and resolving domain name issues.
  • Troubleshooting account issues for all types of migrations, including: resolving system policy translation failures, resolving logon script failures, resolving issues associated with duplicated accounts that have different SIDs, and resolving issues associated with user rights.
  • Troubleshooting access issues for all types of migrations, including resolving client computer connectivity issues, resolving permission issues involving NTFS, resolving issues associated with the inaccessibility and absence of shared resources, resolving authentication issues, resolving trust relationships, and inappropriate access issues.
  • Troubleshooting network services problems for all types of migrations, including resolving name resolution issues; resolving remote access permission failures and logon failures; resolving file and directory replication issues; resolving network service issues, including DHCP, WINS, and DNS.
  • Troubleshooting application failures for all types of migrations, including resolving incompatibility issues and resolving issues associated with hard-coded account information in third-party applications.
  • Troubleshooting tool issues for domain restructures, including ADMT, ClonePrincipal, NETDOM, MoveTree, and Windows 2000 Resource Kit tools.

Additional study resources
There are many other online resources for information about the 70-222 exam. A few include CertCities, CertBlaster,,, and You might want to also check out study guides from ExamCram, McGraw-Hill Professional, and Microsoft Press. If you’ve taken Microsoft’s 70-222 exam, share your favorite study tips with other TechRepublic members by posting a response to this article.