By Floyd Piedad in conjunction
with the Enterprise Computing Institute

Availability: a user metric

Availability is measured from the user’s point of view. A
system is considered available if the user can use the application he or she needs.
Accordingly, availability must be measured end-to-end – all components needed
to run the application are available. Many IT organizations mistakenly believe
that availability is simply equal to main server or network availability. Some
may only measure the availability of critical system components. These are
grave mistakes. A user may equally be prevented from using an application
because his PC is broken, or his data is unavailable, or his PC is infected
with a computer virus.

IT organizations that subscribe to a narrow, or
undisciplined, availability mindset go through several stages of alienation
from their users.

User unhappiness is
the first and least severe stage. Users simply express unhappiness with poor system
availability. The IT organization may either recognize a problem or deny it,
citing their host or network availability statistics as proof. Those who deny
the problem’s existence bring their organization to the next stage of user

User distrust is
characterized by user disbelief in much of what the IT organization says. Users
may begin to view IT’s
action plans as insufficient, or view the IT organization as incapable of
implementing its plans. They gradually lose interest in helping IT with end
user surveys and consultations. IT organizations that can deliver on promises
and provide better availability from the user’s point of view can prevent users
from moving to the next stage of user alienation.

User opposition is
the third stage of alienation. Here, users don’t merely ignore IT plans – they
begin to actively oppose them, suggesting alternatives that may not align with IT’s overall plans. Users start to
take matters into their own hands, researching alternatives that might help
solve their problems. The challenge for the IT organization is to convince
users that the IT plan is superior. The best way to meet this challenge is to
conduct a pilot test of the user’s suggested alternative, then evaluate the
results hand-in-hand with users. In contrast, we have seen some IT
organizations react arrogantly, telling users to “do what you want, but don’t
come crying to us for help.” These organizations find themselves facing the
final stage of user alienation.

User outsourcing is
the final stage of user alienation. Users convince management that the best
solution lies outside the IT organization. Outsourcing
can take the form of hiring an outside consultant to design their system, going
directly to an outside system supplier, or even setting up their own IT
organization. At this stage, users have completely broken off from the IT
organization, and reduced — if not totally eliminated — the need to fund it.

Beyond user alienation, there are other serious side effects:

  • Failure
    to identify root causes of availability problems — If only a few
    components are considered when system availability is evaluated, the causes
    of the outages may well lie in components whose
    availability is not monitored. We have seen several banking IT
    organizations that have denied the existence of Automated Teller Machine
    problems by pointing out that their mainframes, switches, and network are
    always available. They fail to observe that the ATM machines themselves
    cause most ATM outages.
  • Conflicts
    between IT divisions — Many IT organizations usually delegate critical
    elements of their systems to individual groups within IT. Each then
    measures the availability of its assigned area, without correlating it
    with the availability of other areas. This leads to territorial disputes where
    one group blames others for poor system availability. “Don’t blame my group, our network was up 100 percent of the time…”
  • Expensive
    and ineffective remedial measures — If you don’t
    know what the root cause of a problem is, you’ll probably spend money on
    the wrong solution. Or, you’ll concentrate on improving only your assigned
    system component, without regard to overall system availability.
  • Inability
    to determine true system health — Availability measurements of each
    component can’t easily be “added up” to reveal true system availability.
    Ninety-nine percent host availability + 99 percent network availability +
    99 percent database availability is not equal to 99 percent system
    availability. Outages in each area usually occur at different times, and each
    outage in any component brings the entire system down. In this example,
    actual system availability can be anywhere from 97 percent to 99 percent.

Why do many IT organizations fall into the trap of measuring
only a few system components and not actual end-to-end availability? There are
two reasons.

First, it’s easier to measure a few system components. Few
tools are available for analyzing and monitoring end-to-end system
availability. Many tools measure network or host availability, but few actually
check for application outages from the perspective of the user. Second, it’s
easier to achieve higher availability on a per component basis since outages
rarely occur repeatedly on the same component. Outages for different components
usually occur at different times but may all affect the availability of the
system to the user, resulting in far worse availability statistics.

Measuring end-to-end availability

To accurately estimate end-to-end application availability
as experienced by end users, you must first thoroughly understand the system’s
configuration; all the components and resources used by the application, both
local and remote; and the hardware and software components required to access
those resources. Here’s an example:

Sales Personnel Call Management System

Local resources

Sales personnel data


Call reports

Remote resources

Contact management data at
each sales reps’ computer

Hardware components

Personal computer, LAN
adapter, LAN cabling, network switch, print server, network printer

Software components

Windows 98, MS Access, contact
management software, call management application

The next step is to monitor all these components for
outages. If outages are detected on multiple components at the same time, treat
the outage duration as just one instance. To calculate end-to-end availability,
add all the outages of each component. Then, apply the formula presented
earlier in this chapter.

Sounds easy in principle, but taxing in practice? Definitely. That’s why you need to automate measurement as
much as possible. The simplest way is to use a tool that monitors availability
of local and remote resources from a user’s PC. This tool regularly attempts to
get a response from the resources in question, and records times that critical
resources are unavailable. More advanced tools can query an application for
problems or execute certain tasks on the application. If the application fails,
an outage is recorded. This approach does not identify the source of the
problem, but the error condition may help support staffers identify the cause.

There is a great demand for automated end user system
availability monitoring tools — utilities that can be installed in user
workstations that would periodically test the applications for availability. In
the absence of such tools, you would have to resort to random sampling of
users’ availability experiences.

You won’t get precise measurements of every user’s
availability experience – that’s unrealistic. Do, however, recognize that users
have an availability requirement you must pay attention to. Don’t get too
dependent on technical measurements for rating your performance – ultimately,
what matters most is that users are happy with the service that the IT
organization provides.

The Enterprise Computing Institute ( helps IT professionals solve
problems and simplify the management of IT through consulting and training
based on the best-selling Enterprise Computing Institute book series.

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