Nothing is free, especially things that run on your
computer. Spyware organizations may try to make it seem otherwise, but every
process, application, toolbar, and piece of code uses some amount of your
computer system’s resources. Even something as innocuous as a cookie consumes a
small amount of resources. Although each piece of spyware may not be a resource
hog by itself, the combined toll of 30, 40, or more spyware applications will
definitely have a negative impact on even the most robust system. In this
article, you’re going to learn some of the common symptoms that will help you
recognize spyware that’s installed on a system. You’ll also learn how spyware
affects a computer system by using valuable system resources, either alone or
when combined with other spyware applications.
Spotting spyware: Browser clues
Recognizing some types of spyware is easy, but other types
are good at hiding themselves. The most prevalent and easiest form to recognize
is adware, since its purpose is to display ads in pop-up browser windows. When
an adware program is installed on a computer, an abundance of pop-up windows
will display. Some adware programs generate multiple pop-up windows when users
view a Web page, subjecting them to two, three, or even four pop-ups whenever a
new Web page is opened. Some adware programs are designed to display pop-up
windows even if the computer is offline.
Another favorite implement of the adware networks is the
browser toolbar. This is a small program that embeds itself in the browser
window and claims to increase functionality by making it easy for the user to
shop, surf, or search. The aid that browser toolbars provide is debatable, but they
record demographic and surfing habits for the adware organization. Many of
these applications also generate pop-up windows. If a new toolbar suddenly
appears in a browser window, it’s a sure sign that the computer is infected
Some adware companies install code that modifies the browser
settings and changes the home page. Other spyware applications will redirect
the browser from the intended Web site to a competitor’s site. For example, a
user might direct the browser to Google only to have the spyware application
redirect the browser to a competitor’s search engine. These types of overt changes
are always the direct result of spyware applications.
Another browser-related indication that a spyware
installation has occurred is that the [Tab] key doesn’t work when the user
tries to navigate between fields in the browser, or the [Alt][Tab] key combination
doesn’t switch to another window. Changing or disabling the key functionality
forces the user to view the pages that the spyware programs display. This type
of programming is rare and is relegated to the most aggressive of advertisers.
Systray icons and error messages
Spyware applications affect other parts of the system
besides browsers. One obvious sign of a spyware installation is a new icon in
the system tray. Once again, the spyware companies claim that starting the
background process during system startup and adding the tray icon adds
functionality for the user. However, in reality, these programs do little more
than collect information and send it to the parent organization. In addition,
if several spyware applications are added to the startup folder, the startup
process is slowed down.
The random appearance of error messages clearly indicates that
something is wrong with a computer system. Because many spyware applications
are not written with the stringent development processes used in traditional
software organizations, these applications have a tendency to corrupt the
operating system environment. As a result, users will begin to see error
messages during system startup or shutdown or when they attempt to use other
applications. Depending on the types of problems caused by the rogue code, some
users may even experience system crashes and blue-screen error messages. Left
unresolved, these errors can eventually render the system unusable.
Although broadband Internet access is quickly becoming the
norm, many people still use dial-up connections. People using these slow
connections will suffer from spyware applications that send data across the
dial-up connection. Some spyware applications are even designed to secretly
install a dialer program, which covertly makes changes to the system and
replaces the user’s dial-up settings with a new configuration. Dialers
typically place long-distance calls that the user is charged for, although many
telephone companies will forgive the amounts if the user can prove that the
calls were placed by the dialer application. These types of invasive
applications are rare nowadays, but one company notorious for dialer programs
is Alyon Technologies.
Depleting system resources
Perhaps the most common complaint about spyware is that it
slows down the computer system. Applications running as background processes or
in browser windows can consume a great deal of system resources, especially if
several of them are installed on the system. Although this problem is more
apparent on older systems that do not have an abundance of resources by today’s
standards, even new systems with lightning-fast processors and 512 MB or more
in RAM can be brought to their knees by resource-hungry spyware applications.
Spyware applications use system resources in a variety of ways.
First, the programs use memory and CPU cycles when they are running. If more
than one adware application is installed and running, the combined effect can
be quite dramatic, especially as they begin to open pop-up windows. Not only
does this drain system resources and slow down the computer, but viewing Web
pages can be quite difficult because the user is forced to waste time closing
the advertising windows.
Spyware programs also use network bandwidth to open the
advertising pages and send demographic information to the adware organization. Again,
one application may not put a large dent in network bandwidth, but if several
are active, they can consume a significant chunk, especially if the user is on
a dial-up connection.
One type of system resource that is often overlooked is disk
space. All forms of spyware use disk space. Although the amount is often small,
as spyware applications accumulate on a computer, space consumption escalates.
Even the relatively benign cookies can consume a large amount of disk space if
thousands of them are saved on the drive. It’s not uncommon for several
megabytes of disk space to be used for spyware-related applications. This won’t
affect users who have a large hard disk, but those who have older systems and
are pressed for space could benefit from the additional space freed by removing
the spyware files.
In addition to using system resources, spyware applications may make
registry modifications. This can have catastrophic consequences on a computer
system if the application is poorly written. As we noted earlier, these types
of modifications can make your system begin to display random error messages or
cause crashes. Left unchecked, these problems can ultimately degrade system
performance or make the system unusable.
Time, effort, money
Perhaps the biggest resource drain is the amount of time and
money it takes to combat the presence of spyware applications. Corporate
technology departments are seeing a large portion of their resources dedicated
to removing spyware and preventing it from infecting the workstations on their
corporate networks. But average computer users also suffer. They don’t have the
technological savvy to understand the problem or resolve it correctly. Instead,
they’re forced to pay computer professionals to remove the spyware from the
system or use a system rescue disk to restore the computer to its original
state. Neither of these scenarios is appealing for the typical user.
As you can see by the examples in this article, the various
forms of spyware can be quite disruptive to computer users on all levels. This
new form of advertising is much more invasive than its print and broadcast
cousins. Consumers can simply ignore ads delivered by those media, but spyware
forces the computer user to interact with the pop-up window, toolbar,
background process, or other form of code. As you’ll see in future articles,
recognizing when spyware is installed on a computer system and removing it
promptly is the best method of protecting computers from catastrophic problems
caused by spyware.