While Silicon Valley has been the hub for tech jobs for years, housing costs and other variables have lured some tech workers to settle elsewhere. A Glassdoor study, released Wednesday, looked at job postings in software to show exactly where these desirable new locations are.

The study looked at “software” job listings–including software engineer, software developer, software engineering manager and others–on Glassdoor for US employers, between June 1, 2012 and June 1, 2017. It examined trends related to hiring in industries such as retail, banking and financial services, and manufacturing.

According to the report, San Jose, California–the epicenter of Silicon Valley–has experienced a drop in software-related jobs over the last five years. Cities like Seattle, Washington, D.C., and Detroit, on the other hand, have seen growth in this area.

SEE: Launching a startup: A primer for new entrepreneurs (Tech Pro Research)

The five top cities to recruit software engineers and other tech positions are:

1. Seattle (6.7% growth in number of software-related positions)
2. Washington, D.C. (1.3%)
3. Detroit (0.8%)
4. Denver (.7%)
5. Austin (.7%)

The report also outlined how software jobs have changed by industry. Specifically, retail has seen the greatest increase in software-related jobs–a 7.5% jump since 2012. And while the banking and financial services industry, as well as manufacturing, does not employ as many in this area, they have also experienced big gains–banking and financial services grew 2% in this area, and manufacturing saw a 1.7% increase. See full chart below.

“Companies across a wide range of industries and locations increasingly need to recruit tech talent to power their businesses, improve operations and support bottom line growth,” said Andrew Chamberlain, Glassdoor chief economist, in a press release. “Many companies today have online and mobile presences, and we have observed a big exodus of tech jobs out of the sectors and geographical hubs we traditionally think of as tech.”

SEE: How the ‘PayPal Mafia’ redefined success in Silicon Valley (TechRepublic cover story) | download the PDF version

Interested in learning how to land a job outside of Silicon Valley? TechRepublic’s Alison DeNisco reported on the top companies hiring outside the Valley.

The 3 big takeaways for TechRepublic readers

  1. The biggest growth in software-related jobs postings occurred in Seattle (6.7%), followed by Washington, D.C. (1.3%), according to a new report from Indeed.
  2. In contrast, these same jobs in San Jose–the epicenter of Silicon Valley–dropped 7.7 percentage points from 2012 to 2017.
  3. Retail has experienced the greatest growth in software-related jobs over the past five years, going from 6.4 percent in 2012 to 13.9 percent in 2017.