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CBOK Skill Category 1.B.2 - The Deming's PDCA Cycle

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<span style="font-family:georgia;">I am giving simple definitions of P-D-C-A here. There are very good resources available for PDCA cycle which is also known as Deming's Cycle or Schewart's Cycle. Please go through the sources below for better info on PDCA cycle.</span> <ul style="font-family: georgia;"> <li>
<strong>PLAN</strong>: Design or revise business process components to improve results</li> <li>
<strong>DO</strong>: Implement the plan and measure its performance</li>
<li>
<strong>CHECK or STUDY</strong>: Assess the measurements and report the results to decision makers</li>
<li>
<strong>ACT</strong>: Decide on changes needed to improve the process</li> </ul> <span style="font-family:georgia;font-size:100%;">
<span style="font-weight: bold;">Benefits of the PDCA cycle:</span>
<br />
<br />- Daily routine management-for the individual and/or the team<br />- Problem-solving process<br />- Project management<br />- Continuous development<br />- Vendor development<br />- Human resources development<br />- New product development<br />- Process trials</span> <span class="small" style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-weight: bold;">
<br />Note:</span> The PDCA cycle was in fact originally developed by Walter A, Shewhart, a Bell Laboratories scientist who was Deming's friend and mentor, and the developer of Statistical Process Control</span>
<br />
<p>
<a href="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/1600/pdca1.gif" onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}">
<img alt="" border="0" src="http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/1941/1049/320/pdca.gif" style="margin: 0pt 0pt 10px 10px; float: right; cursor: pointer;" />
</a>Kaoru Ishikawa has expanded Deming's four steps into Six<br />
</p> <ol> <li>Determine goals and targets.</li>
<li>Determine methods of reaching goals.</li>
<li>Engage in education and training.</li>
<li>Implement work.</li>
<li>Check the effects of implementation.</li>
<li>Take appropriate action.<br />
</li> </ol> <span class="small" style="font-family:georgia;">
<span style="font-weight: bold;">PDCA Resources:</span>
<br />
</span> <ol style="font-family:georgia;"> <li>
<span class="small">
<a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/offsite.asp?A=Fr&Url=http://quality.enr.state.nc.us/tools/pdca.htm">iSixSigma's Definition of PDCA</a>
</span>
</li> <li>
<span class="small">
<a href="http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite2/toolkit/pdcacycl.htm">Plan-Do-Check-Act from HCi.com</a>
</span>
</li> <li>
<span class="small">
<a href="http://www.toledo-asq.org/PDCA.htm">PDCA from ASQ</a>
<br />
</span>
</li> </ol>
</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1b2-demings-pdca.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.B.2 -Six Sigma, Benchmarking, Continuous Improvement & Best Practices

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN">I dont feel there is need of long notes here as many resources are available on the web. So I am just briefly giving their definitions with the related resources.</span><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><br /></span><b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 24, 148);" lang="EN"><br />Six Sigma</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><br />The goal of Six Sigma is to increase profits by eliminating variability, defects and waste that undermine customer loyalty. <o></o></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN">Six Sigma can be understood/perceived at three levels: <o></o></span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"> <li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); line-height: 19.2pt;"><b><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN">Metric</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN">: 3.4 Defects Per Million Opportunities. DPMO allows you to take complexity of product/process into account. Rule of thumb is to consider at least three opportunities for a physical part/component - one for form, one for fit and one for function, in absence of better considerations. Also you want to be Six Sigma in the <a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/Critical_To_Quality_-_CTQ-216.htm">Critical to Quality</a> characteristics and not the whole unit/characteristics. <o></o></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); line-height: 19.2pt;"><b><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN">Methodology</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN">: <a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/me/dmaic/">DMAIC</a>/<a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/me/dmadv/">DFSS</a> structured problem solving roadmap and tools. <o></o></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); line-height: 19.2pt;"><b><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN">Philosophy</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN">: Reduce variation in your business and take customer-focused, data driven decisions. <o></o></span></li> </ol> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 12pt; line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN">Six Sigma is a methodology that provides businesses with the tools to improve the capability of their business processes. This increase in performance and decrease in process variation leads to defect reduction and vast improvement in profits, employee morale and quality of product.<o></o></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 12pt; line-height: 19.2pt;"><b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 102, 0);" lang="EN">Resources:</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><o></o></span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"> <li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 0); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/sixsigma/six_sigma.asp">What is Six Sigma - A Paper</a> <o></o></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 102, 0);" lang="EN"><a href="http://isixsigma.com/">isixsigma.com</a></span><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"> <o></o></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 102, 0);" lang="EN"><a href="http://sixsigmatutorial.com/Six-Sigma/Six-Sigma-Tutorial.aspx">SixSigma Tutorial</a></span><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><o></o></span></li> </ol> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 19.2pt;"><b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 24, 148);" lang="EN">Benchmarking</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><br />The concept of discovering what is the best performance being achieved, whether in your company, by a competitor, or by an entirely different industry.<br /><br />Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a company measures its performance or process against other companies' best practices, determines how those companies achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance.<br /><br />Benchmarking is a continuous process whereby an enterprise measures and compares all its functions, systems and practices against strong competitors, identifying quality gaps in the organization, and striving to achieve competitive advantage locally and globally.<br /></span><b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 102, 0);" lang="EN">Resources:</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><o></o></span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"> <li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 0); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><a href="http://www.mapnp.org/library/quality/bnchmrkg/bnchmrkg.htm">Complete info on Benchmarking</a><a name="_Toc386390086"> <o></o></a></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(51, 102, 170); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style=""></span><a href="span">http://software.isixsigma.com/offsite.asp?A=Fr&Url=http://www.prosci.com/benchmarking.htm"><span style=""><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN">Benchmarking ? Uncovering Best Practices & Lessons Learnt from others<o></o></span></span></a></li><span style=""></span><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 0); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c000625.asp">Is Benchmarking And Identifying Best Practices Worth It?</a> <o></o></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 0); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><a href="http://www.isixsigma.com/me/benchmarking/">iSixSigma's resources on Benchmarking</a> <o></o></span></li> </ol> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 19.2pt;"><b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 24, 148);" lang="EN">Best Practice</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><br />A way or method of accomplishing a business function or process that is considered to be superior to all other known methods.<br /> <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--><!--[endif]--><o></o></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN">A lesson learned from one area of a business that can be passed on to another area of the business or between businesses.<br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"></span><b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 24, 148);" lang="EN">Continuous Improvement (CI)</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><br />Continuous Improvement (CI): Adopting new activities and eliminating those which are found to add little or no value. The goal is to increase effectiveness by reducing inefficiencies, frustrations, and waste (rework, time, effort, material, etc). The Japanese term is Kaizen, which is taken from the words "Kai" means change and "zen" means good.<br /></span><b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 102, 0);" lang="EN">Resources:</span></b><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" lang="EN"><o></o></span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"> <li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 0); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><a href="http://www.dealconsulting.com/strategy/improve.html">Continous Improvement - A paper</a> <o></o></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 0); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><a href="http://www.mapnp.org/library/quality/cont_imp/cont_imp.htm">Library Info on Continuous Improvement</a> <o></o></span></li><li class="MsoNormal" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); line-height: 19.2pt;"><span style="font-family: Georgia; color: rgb(0, 102, 0);" lang="EN"><a href="http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/mgmt_kaizen_main.html">KAIZEN's concept of Continuous Improvement</a></span><span style="font-family: Georgia;" lang="EN"><o></o></span></li> </ol><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1b2-six-sigma.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.E - Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<strong>Quality Assurance</strong>
<br />
<br />A planned and systematic set of activities to ensure that variances in processes are clearly identified, assessed and improving defined processes for fullfilling the requirements of customers and product or service makers.<br />
<br />A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the product optimally fulfils customer's expectations.<br />
<br />A planned and systematic set of activities to ensure that requirements are clearly established and the defined process complies to these requirements.<br />
<br />"Work done to ensure that Quality is built into work products, rather than Defects." This is by (a) identifying what "quality" means in context; (b) specifying methods by which its presence can be ensured; and (c) specifying ways in which it can be measured to ensure conformance (see *Quality Control*, also *Quality*).<br />
<br />
<strong>Quality Control</strong>
<br />
<br />Also called statistical quality control. The managerial process during which actual process performance is evaluated and actions are taken on unusual performance.It is a process to ensure whether a product meets predefined standards and requisite action taken if the standards are not met.<br />
<br />Quality Control measures both products and processes for conformance to quality requirements (including both the specific requirements prescribed by the product specification, and the more general requirements prescribed by *Quality Assurance*); identifies acceptable limits for significant *Quality Attributes*; identifies whether products and processes fall within those limits (conform to requirements) or fall outside them (exhibit defects); and reports accordingly. Correction of product failures generally lies outside the ambit of Quality Control; correction of process failures may or may not be included.</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1e-quality.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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Understand the idea behind CSQA

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);">The Certified Software Quality Analyst (CSQA) certification is undoubtedly one of the best certifications available in the IT profession. But the level of awareness about CSQA is very limited among the Software community compared to many other software certifications. Probably this may be due to the low awareness and myths about Quality Assurance.</span><br /><br /><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);">Here I would like to say something about CSQA examination.</span><br /><br /><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);">According to the CBOK, this examination is actually designed to test the ability of a professional understanding both the principles and practices of good quality management. </span><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);">The bookish knowledge from the CBOK will only help in understanding the vocabulary, concepts & principles of quality. </span><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);">According to many CSQA certified professionals, most of the Objective papers of CSQA examination are from the basic concepts & principles of CBOK. Where as the practice of these principles are tested in the Subjective Papers.</span><br /><br /><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);">For example, there may be objective questions related to Deming's Principles. Coming to the Subjective papers, the question can be asked as (infact it is a recent question):</span><br /><div style="text-align: left; color: rgb(51, 51, 153);"> <blockquote style="font-weight: bold;">Deming Stresses in "Drive out fear". As a QA Manager how will you<br />drive out fear. Explain briefly.</blockquote> </div><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);"> This is how the candidate's ability to face real world challenges are tested.</span><br /><br /><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 153);">So, my sincere advise to all the CSQA aspirants is to go for the certification in a planned manner so that by the exam time, you have adequate real world exposure to QA practices. Some may be worrying if doing the certification is difficult after the new CBOK is introduced. This is purely a myth. Never worry for the study materials. Infact the new CBOK has few additional concepts along with the concepts in the current version of the CBOK. In this global village, it is never a tough task to find out the relavent material. All you need is persistence. Go for the certification in a way to learn & apply the QA principles in the day to day QA operations, apart from getting certified; not for the purpose of just getting certified. Why dont you choose to go for two birds at one shot? In fact, that is the basic idea behind CSQA!!</span><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/understand-idea-behind-csqa.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.A - Definitions of Quality: Producer?s view of quality & Customer?s view of quality

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

The definitions in summary are given below. For those who love to read more, further info is given.<br /><br />From the <span style="font-weight: bold;">customer's perspective</span>, satisfaction after the delivering of the product is the ultimate validation of the product quality. It is clear that the concept of quality must involve customers or, simply put, quallity is conformance to customers' expectations and requirements. Crosby's "conformance to requirements" and Juran's "fitness for use" both implied the customers' perspective.<br /><br />From the<span style="font-weight: bold;"> producer's perspective</span>, developing and producing the product in accordance with the specifications is the path to achieving quality.<br /><br />Therefore the three ideal metrics any organization should have are product quality, process quality, and customer satisfaction (referred to as the big capital ?Q?).<br /><br />From a high-level definition of a concept, to a product being operationally defined, many steps are involved, each of which may be exposed to possible shortcomings. For example, to achieve the state of conformance to requirements, customers' requirements must first be gathered and analyzed, then specifications from those requirements must be developed, and the product must be developed and manufactured appropriately. In each phase of the process, errors may have occurred that will negatively affect the quality of the finished product. The requirements may be erroneous (especially in the case of software development), the development and manufacturing process may be subject to variable that induce defects, and so forth. Form the customer's perspective, satisfaction after the purchase of the product is the ultimate validation that the product conforms to requirements and is fit to use. From the producer's perspective, once requirements are specified, developing and producing the product in accordance with the specifications is the basic step to achieving quality. Usually, for product quality, lack of functional defeats and good reliability are the most basic measures. In order to be "fit for use," the product first has to be reliably functional.<br /><br />Because of the two perspectives on quality (i.e., customer satisfaction as the ultimate validation of quality, alnd the producer's adherence to requirements to achieve quality), the de facto definition of quality consists of two levels. The first is the intrinsic product quality, often operationally limited to product quality,often operationally limited to product defect rate and reliability; this narrow definition is referred to as the "small" q (q for quality). The broader level of the definition of quality includes both product quality and customer satisfaction; it is referred to as the "big" Q.<br /><br />In software, the norrowest sense of product quality is comonly recongnized as lack of "bugs" in the product. This definition is usually expressed in two ways: defect rate (e.g., number of defects per million lines of source code, or per function point), and reliability (e.g., number of failure per n hours of operation, mean time to failure, or the probability of failure-free operation in a specified time). Customer satisfaction is usually measured by the percentage of those satisfied or nonsatisfied (neutral and dissatisfied) on customer satisfaction surveys. To reduce bias, usually techniques such as double-blind surveys (the interviewer not knowing who the customer is, and the customer not knowing what company the interviewer represents) are used. In addition to overall customer satisfaction with the software product, satisfaction toward specific attributes is CUPRIMDSO satisfaction levels of its software products (i.e., capability [functionality], usability, performance, reliability, instalability, maintainability, documentation/information, service, and overall satisfaction). The Hewlett-Packard Co. focuses on FURPS (functionalilty, usability, relability, performance, and supportability)[1].<br /><br />For people with much more interest, here is the link from HP's Center for Quality Management Journal. I believe the differences between Customer's & Producer's view of qualities cant be better enumerated. The copyrights do not allow to reproduce any part of it. You can go to this link to find this quite a long paper: <a href="http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/reprints/rp08300">http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/reprints/rp08300</a><br />The PDF form of this article can be downloaded from this link: <a href="http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/2fff9754b9deecf5852566340064a8e6/7855628816bce47b85256640004adf58/$FILE/RP08300.pdf">DOWNLOAD Article(PDF)</a><span style="font-weight: bold;"><br /><br />References</span>:<br /><div class="artPubLine"> <ol> <li><span style="font-size:85%;"><strong><a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISJ/is_n1_v33/ai_15103433">Software quality: an overview from the perspective of total quality management - Tutorial</a> - <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISJ">IBM Systems Journal</a></strong>, <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISJ/is_n1_v33">March, 1994</a> by <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Stephen+H.+Kan%22">Stephen H. Kan</a>, <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Victor+R.+Basili%22">Victor R. Basili</a> , <a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Larry+N.+Shapiro%22">L arry N. Shapiro</a></span></li> </ol> </div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1a-definitions-of.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.G - Quality Vocabulary-TQM

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<p align="left"> <a name="Introduction">TQM used to be mentioned as one of the parts of the Quality Concepts Sub-domain in CBOK Skill Category-1 of CBOK. But now, though it is not explicitly mentioned, it is still a buzz word among QA professionals. So, I am putting it as a part of Quality Vocabulary & am giving the necessary resources for it.<br /></a></p> <p align="left"><a name="Introduction"></a><b><a name="Introduction"><br />TQM - Introduction</a></b> </p> <p> Total Quality Management (TQM), a buzzword phrase of the 1980's, has been killed and resurrected on a number of occasions. The concept and principles, though simple seem to be creeping back into existence by "bits and pieces" through the evolution of the ISO9001 Management Quality System standard. </p> <p> Companies who have implemented TQM include Ford Motor Company, Phillips Semiconductor, SGL Carbon, Motorola and Toyota Motor Company. </p> <p> The latest changes coming up for the ISO 9001:2000 standard?s "Process Model" seem to complete the embodiment. TQM is the concept that quality can be managed and that it is a process. The following information is provided to give an understanding of the key elements of this process.<br /></p> <p align="left"> <b><a name="Total Quality Management (TQM)">Total Quality Management (TQM)</a></b> </p> <p> <b>Total</b> = Quality involves everyone and all activities in the company. </p> <p> <b>Quality</b> = Conformance to Requirements (Meeting Customer Requirements). </p> <p> <b>Management</b> = Quality can and must be managed. </p> <b>TQM</b> = A process for managing quality; it must be a continuous way of life; a philosophy of perpetual improvement in everything we do.<br /><br /><br /> <b><a name="TQM compared to ISO 9001">TQM Compared to ISO 9001</a></b> <p> ISO 9000 is a Quality System Management Standard. TQM is a philosophy of perpetual improvement. The ISO Quality Standard sets in place a system to deploy policy and verifiable objectives. An ISO implementation is a basis for a Total Quality Management implementation. Where there is an ISO system, about 75 percent of the steps are in place for TQM. The requirements for TQM can be considered ISO plus. Another aspect relating to the ISO Standard is that the proposed changes for the next revision (1999) will contain customer satisfaction and measurement requirements. In short, implementing TQM is being proactive concerning quality rather than reactive.<br /></p> <table border="1" cellspacing="1"> <tbody><tr><td colspan="6"><p align="center"> <b><big><a name="TQM Process Improvement and Problem Solving Sequence">TQM Process Improvement and Problem Solving Sequence</a></big></b><big> </big></p></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="3"><p align="center"> <b><small>PLAN</small></b> </p><p align="center"> <small>(PLAN A CHANGE)</small></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>DO</small></b> </p><p align="center"> <small>(IMPLEMENT THE CHANGE)</small></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>CHECK </small></b> </p><p align="center"> <small>(OBSERVE THE EFFECTS)</small></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>ACTION</small></b><br /> <small>(EMBED THE FIX INTO<br /> THE PROCESS FOR GOOD)</small></p></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>DEFINE<br /> THE<br /> PROBLEM</small></b></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>IDENTIFY<br /> POSSIBLE<br /> CAUSES</small></b></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>EVALUATE<br /> POSSIBLE<br /> CAUSES</small></b></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>MAKE<br /> A<br /> CHANGE </small></b></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>TEST<br /> THE<br /> CHANGE</small></b></p></td> <td><p align="center"> <b><small>TAKE<br /> PERMANENT<br /> ACTION</small></b></p></td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td valign="top"><small>1. Recognize that what you are</small> <small>doing is a "PROCESS"</small> <p> <small>2. Identify the commodity<br /> being processed.<br /> - Process Inference<br /> <br /> 3. Define some measurable characteristics of value to the commodity.<br /> <br /> 4. Describe the "PROCESS"<br /> o Process Flow Analysis's<br /> o Flow charts<br /> o List of steps<br /> </small> </p><p> <small>5. Identify the "Big" problem<br /> o Brainstorming<br /> o Checklists<br /> o Pareto analysis<br /> </small></p></td> <td valign="top"><small>6. "BRAINSTORM" what is causing the problem.<br /> </small> <p> <small>7. Determine what past data shows.<br /> o Frequency distribution<br /> o Pareto charts<br /> o Control charts<br /> <b>- </b>sampling</small></p></td> <td><small>8. Determine the relationship<br /> between cause and effect<br /> o Scatter diagrams<br /> o Regression analysis</small> <p> <small>9. Determine what the<br /> process is doing now<br /> o Control charts<br /> - sampling</small> </p><p> </p></td> <td><small>10. Determine what change would help </small> <ul><li> <small>Your knowledge<br /> of the process</small> </li><li> <small>Scatter diagrams</small> </li><li> <small>Control Charts<br /> <b>- </b>sampling</small> </li><li> <small>Pareto analysis<br /> </small> </li></ul> <p> <small> ****Then make<br /> the change.</small> </p><center> </center> </td> <td><small>11. Determine what change worked (confirmation).</small> <ul><li> <small>Histograms</small> </li><li> <small>Control charts<br /> <b>- </b>sampling</small> </li><li> <small>Scatter diagrams</small> </li></ul> <p> </p></td> <td><small>12. Ensure the fix is embedded in the process and that the resulting process is used.<br /> <br /> Continue to monitor the process to ensure:<br /> <br /> A. The problem is fixed for good.<br /> <br /> <small> </small> and</small> <p> <small> B. The process is good enough</small> </p><p> <small> o Control charts<br /> <b>- </b>sampling</small> </p><p> <small> ****To ensure continuous<br /> improvement, return<br /> to step 5.</small></p></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Courtesy:<br /></span> <ul> <li><a href="http://home.att.net/%7Eiso9k1/tqm/tqm.html#Introduction">http://home.att.net/~iso9k1/tqm/tqm.html#Introduction</a></li> </ul> <span style="font-weight: bold;">Resources:</span><br /><ol> <li><a href="http://home.att.net/%7Eiso9k1/tqm/tqm.html#Introduction">http://home.att.net/~iso9k1/tqm/tqm.html#Introduction</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.mapnp.org/library/quality/tqm/tqm.htm">http://www.mapnp.org/library/quality/tqm/tqm.htm</a></li> </ol><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1g-quality.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.F.1 - Quality Pioneers - Edwards Deming

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<p style="font-family: georgia; text-align: center;"><span style="font-family:Arial;"><img src="http://www.lii.net/images/deming.gif" height="228" width="180" /></span><strong><i><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: Arial; color: rgb(0, 64, 128);">Dr. W. Edwards Deming</span></i></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;"><img src="http://www.lii.net/images/wedmedal.gif" height="183" width="180" /></span><br /></p> <div style="text-align: right;"><span style="font-style: italic;" class="body"></span><blockquote><span style="font-size:85%;"><span style="font-style: italic;" class="body">If you can't describe what you are doing as a process, you don't know what you're doing.</span><span style="font-style: italic;"> </span><br /> <span style="font-style: italic;" class="bodybold"> <a href="http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/w/wedwardsd133510.html">W. Edwards Deming</a> </span></span> </blockquote><span style="font-style: italic;" class="bodybold"></span> <div style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Dr. W. Edwards Deming is known as the father of the Japanese post-war industrial revival and was regarded by many as the leading quality guru in the <st1:place st="on"><st1:country-region st="on">United States</st1:country-region></st1:place>. He passed on in 1993. </span><o></o></div> </div> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Trained as a statistician, his expertise was used during World War II to assist the <st1:place st="on"><st1:country-region st="on">United States</st1:country-region></st1:place> in its effort to improve the quality of war materials. </span><o></o></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt;">He was invited to <st1:place st="on"><st1:country-region st="on">Japan</st1:country-region></st1:place> at the end of World War II by Japanese industrial leaders and engineers. They asked Dr. Deming how long it would take to shift the perception of the world from the existing paradigm that <st1:place st="on"><st1:country-region st="on">Japan</st1:country-region></st1:place> produced cheap, shoddy imitations to one of producing innovative quality products.<o></o></span></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt;"><o> </o>Dr. Deming told the group that if they would follow his directions, they could achieve the desired outcome in five years. Few of the leaders believed him. But they were ashamed to say so and would be embarrassed if they failed to follow his suggestions. </span><o></o></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><strong><i><span style="font-size: 10pt;">As Dr. Deming told it, "They surprised me and did it in four years."</span></i></strong><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> </span><o></o></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;">He was invited back to <st1:place st="on"><st1:country-region st="on">Japan</st1:country-region></st1:place> time after time where he became a revered counselor. For his efforts he was awarded the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure by the former Emperor Hirohito. </span><o></o></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Japanese scientists and engineers named the famed Deming Prize after him. It is bestowed on organizations that apply and achieve stringent quality-performance criteria. </span><o></o></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><strong><i><span style="font-size: 10pt;">Deming's business philosophy is summarized in his famous "14 Points," listed in my previous post. These points have inspired significant changes among a number of leading US companies striving to compete in the world's increasingly competitive environment.</span></i></strong><span style="font-size: 10pt;"> </span><o></o></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;">But the 14 Points pose a challenge for many firms to figure out how to apply them in a meaningful way that will result in continual improvement. Leadership Institute has developed powerful processes for coaching executive teams, and eventually their entire organizations, to begin accomplishing what Deming referred to as "the transformation." </span><o></o></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">His work is outlined in two books: <em>Out of the Crisis</em> and <em>The New Economics, </em>in which he spells out his <em>System of Profound Knowledge</em>.<br /></span></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;">Courtesy: <a href="http://www.lii.net">www.lii.net</a><br /></span></p> <p style="font-family: georgia;"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other Very good resources on Edwards Deming:</span><br /></span></p> <ol> <li><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"><a href="http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/deming.asp">About Deming & Elaboration on his 14 principles and links to other good sources on Deming</a></span></li> <li><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming">Wikipedia on Deming</a></span></li> </ol><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-quality.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.F.1 - Quality Pioneers - Joseph M. Juran

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

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<img alt="Joseph Juran photo." border="2" src="http://www.skymark.com/images/juran.gif" />
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<span style="font-weight: bold;">
<br />Joseph M. Juran</span>
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<br />Joseph M. Juran made many contributions to the field of quality management in his 70+ active working years. His book, the <u>Quality Control Handbook</u>, is a classic reference for quality engineers. He revolutionized the Japanese philosophy on quality management and in no small way worked to help shape their economy into the industrial leader it is today. Dr. Juran was the first to incorporate the human aspect of quality management which is referred to as Total Quality Management.<br />
<br />The process of developing ideas was a gradual one for Dr. Juran. Top management involvement, the Pareto principle, the need for widespread training in quality, the definition of quality as fitness for use, the project-by-project approach to quality improvement--these are the ideas for which Juran is best known, and all emerged gradually.<br />
<br />Juran is well known for his Quality Trilogy.<br />The following table outlines the major points of Dr. Juran's quality management ideas: <b>
<br />
<br />Quality Trilogy:</b> <table border="1" valign="top"> <tbody>
<tr> <td align="left"> <b> Quality Planning </b> </td> <td align="left"> <ul>
<li> Identify who are the customers. </li>
<li> Determine the needs of those customers. </li>
<li> Translate those needs into our language. </li>
<li> Develop a product that can respond to those needs. </li>
<li> Optimise the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs. </li>
</ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left"> <b> Quality Improvement </b>
<br /> </td> <td align="left"> <ul>
<li> Develop a process which is able to produce the product. </li>
<li> Optimise the process. </li>
</ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left"> <b>Quality Control</b>
<br /> </td> <td align="left"> <ul>
<li> Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection. </li>
<li> Transfer the process to Operations. </li>
</ul> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <br />You can find out more at the links given below:<br />
<ol> <li>
<a href="http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/juran.asp">More on Joseph M. Juran</a>
</li> <li>
<a href="http://www.qualitydigest.com/feb99/html/body_juran.html">An Interview with Juran</a>
<br /> </li> </ol>
</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-quality_06.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CBOK Skill Category 1.F.1 - Quality Pioneers - Philip Crosby

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

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<div style="text-align: center;">
<img alt="Philip Crosby photo" border="2" src="http://www.skymark.com/images/philphoto_120wide.jpg" /> <br /> </div> <h2 style="text-align: center;">Philip Crosby</h2> <h4 style="text-align: center;">"Do It Right the First Time"</h4> Dr. Deming and Dr. Juran were the great brains of the quality revolution. Where Phil Crosby excelled was in finding a terminology for quality that mere mortals could understand. His books, "Quality Without Tears" and "Quality is Free" were easy to read, so people read them. He popularized the idea of the "cost of poor quality", that is, figuring out how much it really costs to do things badly. <br />
<br /> Like Frederick Taylor, Philip Crosby's ideas came from his experience on an assembly line. He focused on zero defects, not unlike the focus of the modern Six Sigma Quality movement. Mr. Crosby was quick to point out, however, that zero defects is not something that originates on the assembly line. To create a manufacturing process that has zero defects management must set the tone and atmosphere for employees to follow. If management does not create a system by which zero defects are clearly the objective then employees are not to blame when things go astray and defects occur. The benefit for companies of such a system is a dramatic decrease in wasted resources and time spent producing goods that consumer's do not want.<br />
<br /> Mr. Crosby defined quality as a conformity to certain specifications set forth by management and not some vague concept of "goodness." These specifications are not arbitrary either; they must be set according to customer needs and wants. <br />
<br /> <bold>Four Absolutes of Quality Management</bold> <ol> <li>Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as 'goodness' or 'elegance'. </li>
<li>The system for causing quality is prevention, not appraisal. </li>
<li>The performance standard must be Zero Defects, not "that's close enough". </li>
<li>The measurement of quality is the Price of Nonconformance, not indices.</li> </ol> Courtesy: <a href="http://www.skymark.com">www.skymark.com</a>
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<span style="font-weight: bold;">More Resources:</span>
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<ol> <li>
<a href="http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/crosby.asp">About Philip Crosby</a>
<br /> </li> <li>
<a href="http://www.qualitydigest.com/may97/html/crosby.html">Travelling & the MBA world - An article from Philip Crosby</a>
</li> </ol>
</div><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-qu_112065983305047774.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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CSQA Study Guide-Contents

by prasannakumar In reply to CSQA blog

<h2 class="sidebar-title"><span style="font-weight: bold; color: rgb(51, 51, 255);font-size:180%;" >Introduction to CSQA</span><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:180%;" br /></span></h2> <ul id="recently"> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/all-you-wanted-to-know-about-csqa.html">All you wanted to know about CSQA-Application to Certification to Recertification</a></li><li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/understand-idea-behind-csqa.html">Understand the idea behind CSQA</a></li> </ul> <span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:180%;" span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 255);">CBOK Skill Category-1: </span><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 255);">QUALITY PRINCIPLES</span><br /></span> <ul id="recently"> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1-quality.html">Quality Principles - Subcategories<br /> </a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1a-definitions-of.html">A - Definitions of Quality: Producer?s view of quality & Customer?s view of quality</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/06/cbok-skill-category-1b1-cost-of.html">B.1 - Cost of Quality & it's Components</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/06/cost-of-quality.html">Further Notes on Cost of Quality - Quality Iceberg</a><br /></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1b2-six-sigma.html">B.2 -Six Sigma, Benchmarking, Continuous Improvement & Best Practices</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1b2-demings-pdca.html">B.2 - The Deming's PDCA Cycle</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1d-software.html"&gt - Software quality attributes</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1e-quality.html">E - Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-quality.html">F.1 - Quality Pioneers - Edwards Deming</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-demings-14.html">F.1 - Deming's 14 Principles</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-qu_112065983305047774.html">F.1 - Quality Pioneers - Philip Crosby</a></li> <li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1f1-quality_06.html">F.1 - Quality Pioneers - Joseph M. Juran</a></li><li><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/cbok-skill-category-1g-quality.html">G - Quality Vocabulary-TQM</a></li> </ul><p><div class="blogdisclaim"><a href="http://csqa.blogspot.com/2005/07/csqa-study-guide-contents.html">This post originally appeared on an external website</a></div>

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