A Secure Automatic Fare Collection System for Time-Based or Distance-Based Services With Revocable Anonymity for Users
Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) systems calculate the fare that the users must pay depending on the time of service (time-based) or the points of entrance and exit of the system (distance-based). The progressive introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allows the use of electronic tickets, which helps to reduce costs and improve the control of the infrastructures. Nevertheless, these systems must be secure against possible fraud and they must also preserve users’ privacy. Therefore, the authors have studied the security requirements for the time-based and distance-based systems and they have proposed a protocol for each of the AFC systems.