Association for Computing Machinery
Time redundancy (rollback-recovery) and hardware redundancy are commonly used in real-time systems to achieve fault tolerance. From an energy consumption point of view, time redundancy is generally more preferable than hardware redundancy. However, hard real-time systems often use hardware redundancy to meet high reliability requirements of safety-critical applications. In this paper, the authors propose a hardware-redundancy technique with low energy-overhead for hard real-time systems. The proposed technique is based on standby-sparing, where the system is composed of a primary unit and a spare.