A Survey of Cooperative Black and Gray Hole Attack in MANET
Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs) are a set of mobile nodes which are self-configuring and connected by wireless links automatically as per the defined routing protocol. Security is an essential requirement in Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANETs). Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad-hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. These mobile nodes communicate with each other without any infrastructure, furthermore, all of the transmission links are established through wireless medium.