A Tutorial on White-box AES
White-box cryptography concerns the design and analysis of implementations of cryptographic algorithms engineered to execute on untrusted platforms. Such implementations are said to operate in a white-box attack context. This is an attack model where all details of the implementation are completely visible to an attacker: not only do they see input and output, they see every intermediate computation that happens along the way. The goal of a white-box attacker when targeting an implementation of a cipher is typically to extract the cryptographic key; thus, white-box implementations have been designed to thwart this goal (i.e., to make key extraction difficult/infeasible).