Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
In this paper, the authors present ALBA-R, a protocol for casting in wireless sensor networks. ALBA-R features the cross-layer integration of geographic routing with contention-based MAC for relay selection and Adaptive Load-Balancing Algorithm (ALBA), as well as a mechanism to detect and route around connectivity holes (Rainbow). ALBA and Rainbow (ALBA-R) together solve the problem of routing around a dead end without overhead-intensive techniques such as graph planarization and face routing. The protocol is localized and distributed and adapts efficiently to varying traffic and node deployments. Through extensive ns2-based simulations, the authors show that ALBA-R significantly outperforms other converge casting protocols and solutions for dealing with connectivity holes, especially in critical traffic conditions and low-density networks.