The ever increasing usage of microprocessor devices is sustained by a high volume production that in turn requires a high production yield, backed by a controlled process. Fault diagnosis is an integral part of the industrial effort towards these goals. This paper presents a novel cost-effective approach to the construction of diagnostic software-based test sets for microprocessors. The methodology exploits an existing post-production test set, designed for software-based self-test, and an already developed infrastructure IP to perform the diagnosis. An initial diagnostic test set is built, and then iteratively refined resorting to an evolutionary method.