International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology (IJESRT)
To optimize the energy consumption embedded systems, the estimation of energy consumption of the embedded applications are very important. This paper proposes a simple but effective instruction-level energy estimation model for embedded systems. For case study purposes, the model parameters were determined for a commonly used ARM9TDMI-based microcontroller. The total energy consists of the energy consumed by the processor core, flash memory, memory controller, SRAM etc. The model parameters that are determined includes op-code of instructions, number of shift operations, register bank bit flips, instructions weight and their Hamming distance, different types of memory accesses, the effect of pipeline stalls etc.