IOSR Journal of Engineering
The demand for wireless mobile communications services is growing at an explosive rate; the high demand for 3G services needs increased in system capacity. The most elementary solution would be to increase bandwidth; however, this becomes challenging as the electromagnetic spectrum is becoming increasingly congested. The frequency reuse concept increases capacity however, increasing the number of cells to accommodate growing subscriber needs is neither effective nor an economical option. This has led to development of new technologies that exploit space selectivity using smart-antenna arrays and the associated adaptive beam forming algorithms. In reality, antennas are not smart; it is the digital signal processing, along with the antenna, which makes the system smart.