Caraoke: An E-Toll Transponder Network for Smart Cities
Electronic toll collection transponders, e.g., E-ZPass, are a widely-used wireless technology. About 70% to 89% of the cars in US have these devices and some states plan to make them mandatory. As wireless devices however, they lack a basic function: a MAC (Medium Access Protocol) protocol that prevents collisions. Hence, today, they can be queried only with directional antennas in isolated spots. However, if one could interact with e-toll transponders anywhere in the city despite collisions, it would enable many smart applications. For example, the city can query the transponders to estimate the vehicle flow at every intersection.