International Journal of Computer Applications
The potential use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in many technological situations is extensive. WSNs are employed in numerous areas, such as battlefields, traffic surveillance, healthcare, and environmental monitoring. Many studies have been conducted to improve various aspects of the performance of WSNs, such as energy efficiency, Quality of Service (QoS), reliability, mobility, scalability, and extended network lifetime. However, few studies have sought to advance the security of WSNs by focusing on Medium Access Control (MAC), physical, and transport stacks. The network layer is the middle layer that coordinates the lower layers and the upper layers.