Routing refers to the process of determining the best route for the transmission of data packets from source to destination and it is based upon routing protocols. Routing protocols are a set of rules which a communication network follows when computers try to communicate with each other across networks. In the field of computer networking, a routing protocol specifies how routers communicate to select the most effective route for information or data transfer between computer nodes. This paper discusses the routing process and looks at a generic classification of routing protocols. It also summarizes the features of some of the most significant protocols like RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, IGRP, EIGRP and BGP, while comparing their individual functioning.