International Journal of Network Security
With the increasing need of accessing remote digital services and protecting electronic transactions, password based authentication that enable two or more parties sharing memorable passwords to securely communicate over an open channel are gaining popularity due in large part to its practical significance. Its feasibility was investigated as early as the work of the researcher and this initial study has been followed by various proposals, including ones employing multi-application smart cards. In such schemes, two participants, i.e. a server S and a user U, are involved.