International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications
In the past, positioning, tracking, mapping and navigation depend largely on astronomical observations that consist of measuring position of the sun or particular stars. Thus, orientation of any line or position - latitude, and longitude - of point can be determined. On the other hand, field observations of the relative positions of points can be plotted and oriented to produce a map. Map can also be produced directly by plotting referenced positions of measured points. Today, these techniques are no longer be used. This is so, because astronomical field procedures and computations are difficult and time consuming. Moreover, Global Positional System (GPS) makes these operations simple and saving time.