International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE)
Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET) are widely used in places where there is little or no infrastructure. A number of people with mobile devices may connect together to form a large group. Later on they may split into smaller groups. This dynamically changing network topology of MANETs makes it vulnerable for a wide range of attack. In this paper, the authors propose a complete protocol for detection & removal of networking Black/Gray Holes by using OPNET network simulator 14.5; it is the latest version of simulation software. Basically, OPNET allows one to build a network with a range of simulated "Real-life" equipment, so different configuration options can be tested.