Natural Sciences Publishing (NSP)
Recent advancements in wireless communication and Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMSs) have made possible the deployment of wireless sensor networks for many real world applications. One of most challenging problems with the deployed sensor nodes is to identify their geographic locations given estimates of the distances between them. There have been a large number of localization algorithms, each of which makes a different geometric approximation. Among them, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) based algorithms outperform the others and have the advantage that they are robust for noise and sparse networks, with or without anchor nodes. Its distributed versions compute a local map for each node at first and then merge these maps to a global map.