Association for Computing Machinery
Die-stacking technology enables multiple layers of DRAM to be integrated with multicore processors. A promising use of stacked DRAM is as a cache, since its capacity is insufficient to be all of main memory (for all but some embedded systems). However, a 1GB DRAM cache with 64-byte blocks requires 96MB of tag storage. Placing these tags on-chip is impractical (larger than on-chip L3s) while putting them in DRAM is slow (two full DRAM accesses for tag and data). Larger blocks and sub-blocking are possible, but less robust due to fragmentation.