Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers
As the technology node shrinks down to 90 nm and below, high power becomes one of the major critical issues for CMOS high-speed computing circuits (e.g. logic and cache memory) due to the increasing leakage currents and data traffic. Emerging non-volatile memories are under intense investigation to bring the non-volatility into the logic circuits and then eliminate completely the standby power issue. Thanks to its quasi-infinite endurance, high speed and easy 3D integration at the back-end process of CMOS IC fabrication, Magnetic RAM (MRAM) is considered as one of the most promising candidates.