The International Journal of Research in Engineering Technology and Management (IJRETM)
The electronic industry has progressed by leaps and bounds. This phenomenal success is ascribed to the constant downsizing of contemporary CMOS devices and circuitry resulting in lower cost, faster, and denser devices with reduced power consumption and enhanced functionality. Consumer's demand for portable battery-operated products has stimulated considerable efforts for exploration of low-voltage devices. CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor field-effect transistors) having decananometer channel lengths are already mass fabricated while those less than 10 nm have been demonstrated in research environments.