The Pennsylvania State University
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have gained increasing attention from both the research community and actual users. The efficient utilization of energy source in a sensor node is very important criteria to prolong the life time of wireless sensor network. Wireless sensor networks have explored to many new protocols specifically designed for sensor networks where energy consideration is very crucial. Most of importance, given to hierarchical routing protocols based on clustering has better scalability. As sensor nodes are generally battery-powered devices, the critical aspects to face concern how to reduce the energy consumption of nodes, so that the network lifetime can be extended to reasonable times.