Lovely Professional University
A mobile ad-hoc network comprises of mobile nodes that can communicate with the nodes within their radio range and also with those which are outside range by using route discovery mechanisms. The nodes in an ad-hoc network can act as a host and also as a router that can route data to or from the other nodes. The topology of mobile ad-hoc networks changes dynamically which is mainly due to arrival or departure of nodes from the network. The nodes in ad-hoc network are self-adjusting and can adapt to the changes occurred in the topology. The main limitation of mobile ad-hoc networks is the energy constraints. There are three states of a node that results in energy consumption that are transmitting, receiving and idle state.