International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) are characterized by multi-hop wireless links and resource constrained nodes. One of the major challenges in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) is link failures due to mobility. Because nodes in a MANET act as routers for any ongoing packet communication and have limited transmission ranges, the communication links are broken and packet losses occur. To improve network lifetime, energy balance is an important concern in such networks. Geographic routing has been widely regarded as efficient and scalable. However, it cannot guarantee packet delivery in some cases, such as faulty location services.