Old City Publishing
In this paper, the authors present an error correction method known as Restorative Feed-Back (RFB) that provides error-correction for both permanent and temporal logic faults in any M-ary logic system. The RFB method is a variant of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR), which achieves error correction in logic circuits by using three-fold redundancy. Unlike TMR, the RFB method has well-defined application to arbitrary M-ary logic systems as well as conventional binary logic circuits. The RFB method also uses a feedback mechanism to suppress transient errors, resulting in a lower error probability than TMR when considering transient upsets.