University of Florence
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) has been used as the main memory in computer systems for decades due to its high-density, high-performance and low-cost. However, DRAM technologies are facing both scalability and power issues. DRAM is difficult to scale down beyond 50nm due to various limitations associated with device leakages and retention time. DRAM-based main memory is also consuming an increasing proportion of the power budget and has been reported to account for as much as 40% of the total system power.