FF-MAC : Fast Forward IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Protocol for Real-Time Data Transmission
In this paper, the authors present a fast forward MAC layer designed for hard real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This protocol is an enhancement to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard MAC layer proposed for low-rate personal area network. The energy conservation mechanism proposed by the current standard is quite efficient and very flexible. This flexibility comes from the ability to configure different duty cycles to meet specific application's requirements. However, this mechanism has a considerable impact on the end-to-end delay. Their approach resolves the energy delay trade-off by avoiding the storage of the real-time data in the coordinator during sleep time.