Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers
Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) such as Orange, Vodafone no longer adapt to the classical approach of having an exclusive use of the wireless network resources such as spectrum, sites, transmission lines, core networks, etc. Cell site sharing which evolved mostly due to the lack of site locations and environmental aspects has been widely adopted as the most common and the most prevailing form of "Resource sharing". However, recent developments show further expansion towards the concept of resource sharing i.e. wider network infrastructure sharing, technically termed as "Active sharing". The 3GPP specifications of multi-carrier options in advanced wireless access systems (e.g. HSPA+, LTE-Advanced) and the fragmented spectrum bands owned by different MNOs pushes infrastructure sharing farther from its demarcations.