Handling the Evil Ring Attack on Localization and Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Compass, face and geographical routing, for ad hoc and wireless sensor networks, rely on nodes knowing their geographic location and locations of other nodes. For location-unaware nodes without self-positioning devices (e.g., GPS), Garcia-Alfaro et al. proposed location determination algorithms leveraging location reports from neighbors. The evil ring is an attack on the location determination algorithms of Garcia-Alfaro et al. When inquired, an attacker returns a fake location sitting on a circle centered at the victim's location and with radius equal to the attacker-victim separation distance.