University of Calgary
Reliable and verifiable Hardware, Software and Content usage Metering (HSCM) is of primary importance for wide segments of e-commerce including intellectual property and digital rights management. The authors have developed the first HSCM technique that employs intrinsic aging properties of components in modern and pending Integrated Circuits (ICs) to create the first self-enforceable HSCM approach. There are variety of hardware aging techniques that range from electro-migration in wires to slow-down of crystal-based clocks. They focus on transistor aging due to Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) effects where the delay of gates increases proportionally to usage times.