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Online examination (E-assessment) is an increasingly important component of online courses, and student authentication is widely seen as one of the major concerns for online examinations. Due to the inherent anonymity of being online, compared to taking an examination in a classroom environment, students may attempt to artificially boost their scores in online examination. This may occur by having another individual take the exam for them, which a typical user/password authentication scheme cannot detect. This paper aims to investigate authentication challenges to online examinations, review benefits, constraints of existing authentication traits, and discuss alternative techniques.