International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJARCSSE)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are event-based systems that develop the communal attempt of densely deployed sensor nodes and incessantly observe a certain physical phenomenon. The majority of the communication protocols are individually developed and optimized for different networking layers, i.e., transport, network, Medium Access Control (MAC), and physical layers. While these protocols achieve very high performance in terms of the metrics related to each of these individual layers, the authors are not jointly designed and optimized to maximize the overall network performance while minimizing the energy expenditure. The design principle of XLP is based on the cross-layer concept of initiative determination, which enables receiver-based contention, initiative-based forwarding, local congestion control, and distributed duty cycle operation to realize efficient and reliable communication in WSNs.