Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
In this paper, the authors discuss key recovery and universal forgery attacks on several MAC algorithms based on universal hash functions. The attacks use a substantial number of verification queries but eventually allow for universal forgeries instead of existential or multiple forgeries. This means that the security of the algorithms completely collapses once a few forgeries are found. Some of these attacks start off by exploiting a weak key property, but turn out to become full-fledged divide and conquer attacks because of the specific structure of the universal hash functions considered.