Lightweight Location Verification Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks
The knowledge of sensors' locations is crucial information for many applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). When sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environments, the localization schemes are vulnerable to various attacks, e.g., wormhole attack, pollution attack, range enlargement/reduction attack, and etc. Therefore, sensors' locations are not trustworthy and need to be verified before they can be used by location-based applications. Previous verification schemes either require group-based deployment knowledge of the sensor field, or depend on expensive or dedicated hardware, thus they cannot be used for low-cost sensor networks. In this paper, the authors propose a lightweight location verification system that performs both \"On-spot\" and \"In-region\" location verifications.