Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Flash memory is a non-volatile technology that is both electrically programmable and electrically erasable. It incorporates a set of cells maintained at a set of levels of charge to encode information. While raising the charge level of a cell is an easy operation, reducing the charge level requires the erasure of the whole block to which the cell belongs. For this reason charge is injected into the cell over several iterations. Such programming is slow and can cause errors since cells may be injected with extra unwanted charge. Other common errors in flash memory cells are due to charge leakage and reading disturbance that may cause charge to move from one cell to its adjacent cells.