University of Waterloo
As the easiest and cheapest way of authenticating an end user, password based approach has been consistently chosen by implementers of every new computer or mobile device based web service. Unfortunately, the explosive growth of web applications has made it impossible for users to manage dozens of passwords for accessing different web services. The situation is even worse considering the potential application of massively parallel computational devices such as general purpose GPUs and FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) arrays for efficient password cracking. Hence, from a usability viewpoint, passwords have reached the end of their useful life.