Purdue Federal Credit Union
In this paper, the authors use zero-sum Markov games to model these interactions subject to underlying uncertainties of real-world events and actions. They solve equilibrium mixed strategies of the players that maximize their respective minimum payoffs with a time-decayed metric. They also show how the defender can use deception as a defense mechanism. Using results for a 5-bus system, a WECC 9-bus system, and an IEEE standard 14-bus system, they illustrate that their game model can provide useful insights. They also contrast their results with those of static games, and quantify the gain in defender payoff due to misinformation of the attacker.